What does CHKDSK /F /R do? How to use CHKDSK to repair the hard drive errors on Windows 10/8/7? Here is the full guide. 

Workable Solutions Step-by-step Troubleshooting
What is CHKDSK command  CHKDSK (Check Disk Utility) can be used to check and fix any errors on the targeted disk. You can run it from the Command Prompt/PowerShell...Full steps
What does CHKDSK /F /R /X mean  CHKDSK /F can fix disk errors. CHKDSK /R does the same thing as CHKDSK /F only it also checks for bad sectors on the disk and recovers any readable information...Full steps
CHKDSK Alternative - Run a partition tool to fix disk error (1 Step) Download EaseUS partition tool for free and use it to check and repair the corrupted file systems with clicks. No need to type commands manually...Full steps
Use CHKDSK manually Run CHKDSK /F /R /X from the Command Prompt/Power shell or via the Properties window...Full steps

What Is CHKDSK Command

In computing, CHKDSK (short for "check disk") is a system tool and command in DOS, Digital Research FlexOS, IBM/Toshiba 4690 OS, IBM OS/2, Microsoft Windows and related operating systems. It verifies the file system integrity of a volume and attempts to fix logical file system errors. - explained by Wikipedia

Image of CHKDSK

CHKDSK, also known as Microsoft Check Disk, is a utility that can be used in almost all Windows versions. The CHKDSK command is used to scan through your entire hard drive to find and fix any errors. For example, when your computer freezes, you cannot access a certain disk due to a corrupted file system, then you can use the CHKDSK commands to check and fix the drive errors.

What Does CHKDSK /F /R /X Command Mean  

Image of CHKDSK

What is CHKDSK /F /R /X? The primary function of CHKDSK /F /R /X is to scan the integrity of the file system and file system metadata on a disk volume and fix any logical file system errors that it finds. Besides, CHKDSK also can be used for detecting bad sectors on the target disk that occur because of physical damage. Then, it automatically fixes these errors as well.

CHKDSK /F VS CHKDSK /R VS CHKDSK /X, What's The Difference

CHKDSK can fix two types of disk errors: logical errors and physical errors. Based on the disk error types, you can use the different CHKDSK commands and switches to fix hard drive errors. CHKDSK /F, CHKDSK /R, and CHKDSK /X are the most commonly used CHKDSK commands. What is the difference between CHKDSK /F /R and /X?

  • CHKDSK /F: Check for disk errors, not bad sectors. 
  • CHKDSK /R: Locate the bad sectors on the target hard disk and try to recover the readable information from the bad sectors (implies /F).
  • CHKDSK /X: Forces the volume to dismount first, if necessary. It also includes the functionality of /f.

When to use chkdsk /f, chkdsk /r, and chkdsk/x? You want to see existing errors, use CHKDSK /f command, you want recover readable information from back sectors, use CHKDSK /R, and  

What Does Each CHKDSK Parameter Means? Here Are the 

The syntax of the CHKDSK command is: 

chkdsk volume /f /v /r /x /i /c

If used without parameters, CHKDSK displays only the volume's status and does not fix any errors. If used with the /f, /r, /x, or /b parameters, it fixes errors on the volume. What do the parameters ( /f /r /x... ) mean? Here are some common CHKDSK parameters and their meanings:

Parameters

Parameters Details of the Parameters
/f Fixes errors on the disk. The disk must be locked. If CHKDSK cannot lock the drive, a message appears that asks you if you want to check the drive the next time you restart the computer.
/r Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information. The disk must be locked. It includes the functionality of /f, with the additional analysis of physical disk errors.
/x Forces the volume to dismount first, if necessary. All open handles to the drive are invalidated. It also includes the functionality of /f.
/b NTFS only. It clears the list of bad clusters on the volume and rescans all allocated and free clusters for errors. It includes the functionality of /r. Use this parameter after imaging a volume to a new hard disk drive.
/v Displays the name of each file in every directory as the disk is checked.
/scan NTFS only. It runs an online scan on the volume.
/i NTFS only. It performs a less vigorous check of index entries, which reduces the amount of time required to run CHKDSK.
/c NTFS only. It does not check cycles within the folder structure, which reduces the amount of time required to run CHKDSK.

Run CHKDSK Alternative - EaseUS Partition Tool to Fix and Repair Disk Errors

If you are not so tech-savvy and know little about computers, we highly recommend you try a professional disk management tool to fix hard drive errors instead of using CMD and typing the commands manually. EaseUS Partition Master is a full-featured disk partitioning utility that enables you to manage primary and advanced partitions and maximize disk capacity usage.

Free Download 

Windows 11/10/8/7100% Secure

EaseUS partition tool makes it effortless to repair disk errors. Follow the steps to check and repair your file system error:

Step 1. Open EaseUS Partition Master on your computer. Then, locate the disk, right-click the partition you want to check, and choose "Advanced" > "Check File System".

choose Check Partition

Step 2. In the Check File System window, keep the "Try to fix errors if found" option selected and click "Start".

check the pop-up instructions

Step 3. The software will begin checking your partition file system on your disk. When it completes, click "Finish".

finish partition check

How to Run CHKDSK /F /R /X Command to Fix Disk Errors on Windows 10/8/7

If you don't like to use the simple third-party CHKDSK tool, you can run CHKDSK in a harder way via 3 methods: using Command prompt, Windows PowerShell, and disk check tool.

1. Run CHKDSK in Command Prompt

Whenever you find your hard drive performs poorly or Windows asks you to repair drive errors, you can try to run CHKDSK to do the job. Here's how to run CHKDSK /f on Windows 10/8.1/8/7.

Use CHKDSK /F /R on Windows 10 

Note: If you can't boot into Windows 10 to run CHKDSK, fix the UEFI boot issue in Windows 10 with 5+ solutions.

Step 1. Press the Windows key and type cmd.

Step 2. Right-click "Command Prompt" and choose "Run as administrator".

Step 3. Enter the following command and press Enter: chkdsk C: /f /r /x. Replace "C" with the drive letter of the partition you want to repair.

Run CHKDSK

Do not interrupt CHKDSK and wait patiently for the process to end. 

Aside from applying CHKDSK to fix disk errors, here are some tutorials that you may follow to learn more details about this command:

Run CHKDSK on Windows 8.1/8 

To run the utility from Command Prompt for Windows 8.1/8 users, here are the instructions:

Step 1. Press the Windows and C key to open the Charm bar.

Step 2. Select "Search" and type cmd.

Step 3. Right-click on "Command Prompt" and click "Run as administrator."

Step 4. When Command Prompt launches, type the command below and press "Enter": chkdsk E: /f /r /x.

run chkdsk command in windows 10 command prompt

Run CHKDSK on Windows 7 CMD

If you are a Windows 7 user, you can run the CHKDSK command by the following steps:

Step 1. Click "Start". Type cmd at the search box.

Step 2. Right-click on cmd.exe and click "Run as Administrator". Enter your Administrator password if necessary.

Step 3. When cmd.exe opens, type the command below and press "Enter": chkdsk c /f /r.   

If you receive the "Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another process." message, type Y to restart the computer and let the utility to run a scan at the next boot of your PC.

Extended Reading:

If you are looking for a guide to run CHKDSK to check and fix disk errors on Wnidows 11, try this recommended guide page and you'll learn how to do so.

related articles

Check and Fix Disk Error in Windows 11

Are you looking to check disk errors in Windows 11? If yes, you might need a guide on checking and fixing disk errors in Windows 11. We have compiled the best methods for you.

Fix disk error

2. Use CHKDSK/F/R in Windows PowerShell

If the Command Prompt not working in Windows 10, you can also run the CHKDSK /F or /R command in Windows PowerShell to fix hard drive errors.

Step 1. Click the Search button and type PowerShell.

Step 2. Right-click the PowerShell and choose Run as administrator.

Step 3. Type chkdsk c /f /r to start fixing disk error. Replace C with the drive letter of the target disk.

chkdsk /f /r

3. Run CHKDSK Alternative - CheckDisk in Properties Window

Running the Check Disk tool from the Windows desktop is easy. Follow the steps below to run CHKDSK in Windows 10. It works the same way on Windows 8 and Windows 7.

Step 1. Open This PC in File Explorer > right-click the HDD/SSD you want to scan > choose "Properties".

Step 2. Under the Tools tab > click the "Check" button under the Error-checking section.

Step 3. Next, you can choose to Scan drive if wanted or Repair drive if errors were found.

Step 4. When the scanning finishes, click on the Show Details link to see the CHKDSK log in Event Viewer.

run chkdsk in this pc on Windows 10

Conclusion

Any time you have hard drive errors or corrupted files, the CHKDSK can be a lifesaver. You can use the disk error checker that comes with every Windows version with the full guide above.

Or you can use the ultimate disk management tool - EaseUS Partition Master to repair organize your hard drive to enhance system performance easily.

Free Download 

Windows 11/10/8/7100% Secure

FAQs About CHKDSK /F /R That You May Be Interested In

You may encounter CHKDSK related problems; what to do then? Here are the common issues of CHKDSK errors; read on to figure out the solutions.

1. Is CHKDSK R safe?

It's safe to run the CHKDSK /R command under normal circumstances as long as you're using the syntax properly. There are different parameters with CHKDSK; you can check the CHKDSK parameters and choose the one that suits your problem to fix disk errors.

2. How long does chkdsk /f /r take?

It depends.

  • chkdsk -f should take under an hour on that hard drive.
  • chkdsk -r will take some time. It could take over an hour, maybe two, three, or more, depending on your partitioning.

You can interrupt the scan, but not recommended. Canceling or interrupting CHKDSK should not leave the volume any more corrupt than it was before CHKDSK was run. You can start it again, and it will check and repair any remaining corruption on the volume.

3. What to do when CHKDSK is stuck or frozen?

  • Restart your computer.
  • Press Esc or Enter to stop chkdsk from running.
  • Run the Disk Cleanup utility to clear out junk files.
  • Open an elevated CMD, type sfc /scannow, and press Enter to run the System File Checker. 
  • Restart and exit chkdsk again during the startup by pressing Esc or Enter.
  • Open CMD as admin, type Dism /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth, and press Enter to repair the Windows image.
  • Run CHKDSK again.

The scan should be able to run to completion this time.

4. CHKDSK /F /R VS CHKDSK /R /F on Windows

What's the difference between CHKDSK /F /R and CHKDSK /R /F commands on Windows computer?

This is no much difference between chkdsk /f /r and chkdsk /r /f. The only difference is the sequence of two parameters /f and /r/f means to fix errors on target disk and /r means to locate bad sectors and recover readable information. Mostly, the correct form should be chkdsk /f /r. Basically, when we don't know if the target drive contains bad sectors, we would suggest that you run the overall CHKDSK command: chkdsk /f /r /x together.

Was This Page Helpful?

Updated by Cici

Cici has accepted the systematic training on computers at EaseUS. Now she has a detailed understanding of common computer issues, as well as computer backups and disk formatting management solutions.

Read full bio

Written by Roxanne

Roxanne is one of the main contributors to EaseUS and has created multiple posts on digital devices like PCs, Mobile phones, tablets, Mac, etc. She loves to share ideas with people of the same interest.

Read full bio